make internally uses the
macro to spawn shell processes and execute Make rules. This
is a builtin macro supplied by
make, but it can be modified
by a makefile or by a command-line argument.
make implementations define this
make is an example; this implementation always uses
/bin/sh. So it’s a good idea to always define
your makefiles. If you use Autoconf, do
SHELL = @SHELL@
If you use Automake, this is done for you.
Do not force
SHELL = /bin/sh because that is not correct
everywhere. Remember, /bin/sh is not Posix compliant on many
systems, such as FreeBSD 4, NetBSD 3, AIX 3, Solaris 10, or Tru64.
Additionally, DJGPP lacks
/bin/sh, and when its
make port sees such a setting it enters a
special emulation mode where features like pipes and redirections are
emulated on top of DOS’s
command.com. Unfortunately this
emulation is incomplete; for instance it does not handle command
@SHELL@ means that your makefile will
benefit from the same improved shell, such as
ksh, that was discovered during
configure, so that
you aren’t fighting two different sets of shell bugs between the two
make should never acquire the value of
$(SHELL) from the environment, even when
make -e is used
(otherwise, think about what would happen to your rules if
However not all
make implementations have this exception.
For instance it’s not surprising that Tru64
SHELL, since it doesn’t use it.
$ cat Makefile SHELL = /bin/sh FOO = foo all: @echo $(SHELL) @echo $(FOO) $ env SHELL=/bin/tcsh FOO=bar make -e # Tru64 Make /bin/tcsh bar $ env SHELL=/bin/tcsh FOO=bar gmake -e # GNU make /bin/sh bar
make is not supposed to export any changes to the
SHELL to child processes. Again, many implementations
break this rule:
$ cat Makefile all: @echo $(SHELL) @printenv SHELL $ env SHELL=sh make -e SHELL=/bin/ksh # BSD Make, GNU make 3.80 /bin/ksh /bin/ksh $ env SHELL=sh gmake -e SHELL=/bin/ksh # GNU make 3.81 /bin/ksh sh